TA Pair: COG2886-PIN
#OrganismToxinAntitoxinLocus IDReplicon
1Acaryochloris marina MBIC110174637 AM1_5875AM1_5874NC_009925
2Aeropyrum pernix K16 APE_0890APE_0890a.1NC_000854
3Aeropyrum pernix K12 APE_0276.1APE_0276aNC_000854
4Archaeoglobus fulgidus DSM 430433 AF0099AF0100NC_000917
5Archaeoglobus fulgidus DSM 430442 AF0598AF0597NC_000917
6Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 89033786 Csac_0630Csac_0629NC_009437
7Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum OPF85184 Kcr_0471Kcr_0470NC_010482
8Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD32125 Cag_0310Cag_0312NC_007514
9Chlorobium phaeobacteroides DSM 2663183 Cpha266_0648Cpha266_0647NC_008639
10Chloroherpeton thalassium ATCC 351105806 Ctha_1342Ctha_1343NC_011026
11Cyanothece sp. ATCC 511425336 cce_2872cce_2873NC_010546
12Cyanothece sp. ATCC 511425341 cce_3220cce_3219NC_010546
13Cyanothece sp. ATCC 511425304 cce_5247cce_5248NC_010539
14Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA4261183 GK1949GK1950NC_006510
15Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 74211414 glr0616gsr0615NC_005125
16Halobacterium salinarum R15080 OE1117FOE1116FNC_010364
17Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc 1 (Ames)5699 LBF_2142LBF_2141NC_010842
18Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc strain Patoc 1 (Paris)5424 LEPBI_I2204LEPBI_I2203NC_010602
19Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A803 MA0480MA0481NC_003552
20Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro1982 Mbar_A2868Mbar_A2867NC_007355
21Methanosarcina mazei Go1593 MM_1664MM_1665NC_003901
22Methanospirillum hungatei JF-12439 Mhun_1190Mhun_1189NC_007796
23Methylobacterium sp. 4-465241 M446_2312M446_2313NC_010511
24Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8434933 MAE_04250MAE_04260NC_010296
25Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8434926 MAE_01050MAE_01060NC_010296
26Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8435016 MAE_46970MAE_46960NC_010296
27Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8435009 MAE_43220MAE_43230NC_010296
28Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8434935 MAE_04320MAE_04330NC_010296
29Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8434934 MAE_04270MAE_04280NC_010296
30Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 (Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133)5472 Npun_R6331Npun_R6332NC_010628
31Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Anabaena sp. PCC 7120)475 all2804asl2805NC_003272
32Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme BU-15891 Ppha_2824Ppha_2825NC_011060
33Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme BU-15831 Ppha_0162Ppha_0161NC_011060
34Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum SI3868 PTH_0694PTH_0695NC_009454
35Pyrobaculum aerophilum str. IM2539 PAE2851PAE2849NC_003364
36Pyrobaculum aerophilum str. IM2528 PAE1891PAE1890NC_003364
37Pyrobaculum aerophilum str. IM2520 PAE0391aPAE0393NC_003364
38Pyrobaculum arsenaticum DSM 135143708 Pars_0941Pars_0940NC_009376
39Pyrobaculum arsenaticum DSM 135143721 Pars_1271Pars_1270NC_009376
40Pyrobaculum calidifontis JCM 115483575 Pcal_1008Pcal_1007NC_009073
41Pyrobaculum islandicum DSM 41843247 Pisl_1357Pisl_1356NC_008701
42Pyrobaculum neutrophilum V24Sta5286 Tneu_0318Tneu_0319NC_010525
43Roseiflexus castenholzii DSM 139414438 Rcas_0629Rcas_0630NC_009767
44Roseiflexus castenholzii DSM 139414453 Rcas_2350Rcas_2349NC_009767
45Roseiflexus sp. RS-14066 RoseRS_3016RoseRS_3017NC_009523
46Sorangium cellulosum So ce564843 sce5012sce5011NC_010162
47Sorangium cellulosum So ce564837 sce1131sce1130NC_010162
48Synechococcus sp. PCC 70025179 SYNPCC7002_E0037SYNPCC7002_E0036NC_010479
49Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803976 sll0658ssl1255NC_000911
50Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus ATCC 332235048 Teth39_0043Teth39_0042NC_010321
51Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD11575 TK0918TK0917NC_006624
52Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD11561 TK0212TK0213NC_006624
53Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD11553 TK2306TK2305NC_006624
54Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD11600 TK2155TK2154NC_006624
55Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS1012871 Tery_4273Tery_4274NC_008312

Antitoxin domain: COG2886. Uncharacterized small protein [Function unknown]

Toxin domain: PIN. This PIN (PilT N terminus) domain is a compact domain of about 100 amino acids. The domain has two nearly invariant aspartates. The function of the PIN domain is unknown but a role in signaling appears likely given the presence of this domain is StbB and DIS3. The majority of PIN-domain proteins found in prokaryotes are the toxic components of toxin-antitoxin operon, and toxin-antitoxin gene cassettes, though first found in plasmids, are found to be abundant in free-living prokaryotes, including many pathogenic bacteria. These loci provide a control mechanism that helps free-living prokaryotes cope with nutritional stress. In many genomes PIN domains are annotated as VapC and are part of the VapBC toxin-antitoxin operons. These operons are expanded in number in several unrelated micro-organisisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Sulfolobus solfataricus.

Crystal structure of (YP_321193.1) from Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 at 2.00 A resolution [PDB ID: 2GA1]
(1) Makarova KS et al. (2009) Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes. Biol Direct 4:19. [PudMed:19493340] in_silico