TA Pair: Xre-PIN
#OrganismToxinAntitoxinLocus IDReplicon
1Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58348 Atu2140Atu2141NC_003062
2Archaeoglobus fulgidus DSM 430436 AF0300AF0301NC_000917
3Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 89033800 Csac_2643Csac_2642NC_009437
4Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD32123 Cag_0280Cag_0279NC_007514
5Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD32136 Cag_0857Cag_0858NC_007514
6Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD32132 Cag_0681Cag_0680NC_007514
7Chlorobium phaeobacteroides BS15684 Cphamn1_1964Cphamn1_1963NC_010831
8Chlorobium phaeobacteroides BS15677 Cphamn1_1904Cphamn1_1905NC_010831
9Cyanothece sp. ATCC 511425308 cce_5296cce_5295NC_010542
10Cyanothece sp. ATCC 511425313 cce_0386cce_0385NC_010546
11Herpetosiphon aurantiacus DSM 7854735 Haur_5182Haur_5183NC_009973
12Hydrogenobaculum sp. Y04AAS15905 HY04AAS1_0453HY04AAS1_0452NC_011126
13Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1700 lp_3390lp_3389NC_004567
14Methanoculleus marisnigri JR13551 Memar_1114Memar_1115NC_009051
15Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8435020 MAE_47340MAE_47330NC_010296
16Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8434994 MAE_34530MAE_34520NC_010296
17Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8434972 MAE_20360MAE_20370NC_010296
18Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8434959 MAE_15740MAE_15750NC_010296
19Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8434928 MAE_03580MAE_03590NC_010296
20Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-8434944 MAE_08700MAE_08690NC_010296
21Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC 197072054 Noc_2544Noc_2542NC_007484
22Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718939 NE2174NE2175NC_004757
23Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Anabaena sp. PCC 7120)498 all5132all5131NC_003272
24Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Anabaena sp. PCC 7120)457 alr0683asr0682NC_003272
25Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Anabaena sp. PCC 7120)461 all1495asl1496NC_003272
26Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Anabaena sp. PCC 7120)451 alr0149asr0148NC_003272
27Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Anabaena sp. PCC 7120)482 alr3479asr3478NC_003272
28Oceanobacillus iheyensis HTE831638 OB0153OB0154NC_004193
29Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme BU-15853 Ppha_1408Ppha_1409NC_011060
30Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme BU-15855 Ppha_1554Ppha_1555NC_011060
31Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme BU-15846 Ppha_1048Ppha_1049NC_011060
32Petrotoga mobilis SJ954776 Pmob_0004Pmob_0005NC_010003
33Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA74276 PSPA7_3408PSPA7_3407NC_009656
34Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1182 PA1878PA1879NC_002516
35Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCBPP-PA143010 PA14_40220PA14_40210NC_008463
36Pseudomonas protegens Pf-51779 PFL_2689PFL_2688NC_004129
37Pseudomonas putida GB-15065 PputGB1_3724PputGB1_3723NC_010322
38Pyrococcus abyssi GE5987 PAB0786PAB7298NC_000868
39Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638549 PF0839PF0838NC_003413
40Roseiflexus castenholzii DSM 139414465 Rcas_4381Rcas_4382NC_009767
41Roseiflexus sp. RS-14063 RoseRS_2328RoseRS_2327NC_009523
42Salinispora arenicola CNS-2054696 Sare_0696Sare_0697NC_009953
43Synechocystis sp. PCC 68036119 SYNGTS_1762SYNGTS_1763NC_017277
44Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803972 experimental sll1092ssl2138NC_000911
45Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis PCC6803)1818 slr8014ssr8013NC_005231
46Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4 (Caldanaerobacter subterraneus)770 TTE2037TTE2038NC_003869

experimental Data derived from experimental literature

Antitoxin domain: Xre. Helix-turn-helix XRE-family like proteins. Prokaryotic DNA binding proteins belonging to the xenobiotic response element family of transcriptional regulators.

Toxin domain: PIN. This PIN (PilT N terminus) domain is a compact domain of about 100 amino acids. The domain has two nearly invariant aspartates. The function of the PIN domain is unknown but a role in signaling appears likely given the presence of this domain is StbB and DIS3. The majority of PIN-domain proteins found in prokaryotes are the toxic components of toxin-antitoxin operon, and toxin-antitoxin gene cassettes, though first found in plasmids, are found to be abundant in free-living prokaryotes, including many pathogenic bacteria. These loci provide a control mechanism that helps free-living prokaryotes cope with nutritional stress. In many genomes PIN domains are annotated as VapC and are part of the VapBC toxin-antitoxin operons. These operons are expanded in number in several unrelated micro-organisisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Sulfolobus solfataricus.

Crystal structure of (YP_321193.1) from Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 at 2.00 A resolution [PDB ID: 2GA1]
(1) Ning D; Zhao W; Qian Y (2013) [A hypothetical gene pair, ssl2138 and sll11092, constitutes a functional TA system on the chromosome of Synechocystis PCC 6803] Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 53(10):1043-9. [PudMed:24409759] experimental
(2) Makarova KS et al. (2009) Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes. Biol Direct 4:19. [PudMed:19493340] in_silico