TA family: parD (pem)
#OrganismLocus idToxinAntitoxinReplicon
1Escherichia coli EC302/046292 C381_p00565C381_p00570CP011493
2Lactobacillus plantarum plasmid pCD0336291 AKD43743AKD43744KP718939
3Shigella flexneri 2b1076 R100p114R100p113NC_002134
4Streptococcus suis SC846281 experimental SSUSC84_1817SSUSC84_1818 NC_012924

experimental Data derived from experimental literature
The identical parD and pem (plasmid emergency maintenance) loci was firstly identified in plasmids R1 and R100, respectively. These loci code for toxins Kid (killing determinant)/PemK and antitoxins Kis (killing suppression)/PemI.
Conserved Domain

Kid toxin protein from E.coli plasmid R1 [ PDB ID: 1M1F ] [PudMed:12377128]
(1) Bravo A et al. (1987) Identification of components of a new stability system of plasmid R1, ParD, that is close to the origin of replication of this plasmid. Mol Gen Genet. 210(1):101-10.. [PudMed:3323833] experimental
(2) Diago-Navarro E et al. (2010) parD toxin-antitoxin system of plasmid R1 - basic contributions,biotechnological applications and relationships with closely-relatedtoxin-antitoxin systems. FEBS J 277(15):3097-117. [PudMed:20569269]
(3) Ruiz-Echevarria MJ et al. (1991) Structural and functional comparison between the stability systems ParD ofplasmid R1 and Ccd of plasmid F. Mol Gen Genet 225(3):355-62. [PudMed:2017133] experimental
(4) Monti MC et al. (2007) Interactions of Kid-Kis toxin-antitoxin complexes with the parDoperator-promoter region of plasmid R1 are piloted by the Kis antitoxin andtuned by the stoichiometry of Kid-Kis oligomers. Nucleic Acids Res 35(5):1737-49. [PudMed:17317682] experimental
(5) Kamphuis MB et al. (2007) Structure and function of bacterial kid-kis and related toxin-antitoxin systems. Protein Pept Lett 14(2):113-24. [PudMed:17305597] 3D_structure
(6) Kamphuis MB et al. (2007) Interactions between the toxin Kid of the bacterial parD system and theantitoxins Kis and MazE. Proteins 67(1):219-31. [PudMed:17206710] experimental
(7) Kamphuis MB et al. (2006) Model for RNA binding and the catalytic site of the RNase Kid of the bacterialparD toxin-antitoxin system. J Mol Biol 357(1):115-26. [PudMed:16413033] experimental
(8) Munoz-Gomez AJ et al. (2005) RNase/anti-RNase activities of the bacterial parD toxin-antitoxin system. J Bacteriol 187(9):3151-7. [PudMed:15838042] experimental
(9) Hargreaves D et al. (2002) Structural and functional analysis of the kid toxin protein from E. coli plasmidR1. Structure 10(10):1425-33. [PudMed:12377128] 3D_structure
experimental experimental literature
3D_structure protein structure literature