TA family: hipBA
#OrganismLocus idToxinAntitoxinReplicon
1Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG16551040 experimental b1507b1508NC_000913

experimental Data derived from experimental literature
The hipBA locus was found to be involved in persistence of E. coli cells. The persister cells are tolerant to antibiotics or to various other stressful conditions [PudMed:20528688] .
Conserved Domain
Accession No.NameRelation/involvement in TA lociReference
COG1396HipBInvolved in production of persister cells (antitoxin)PubMed:17678530

structures of MDT proteins [ PDB ID: 3DNT] [PudMed:19150849]
structure of MDT protein [ PDB ID: 3DNU] [PudMed:19150849]
MDT Protein [ PDB ID: 3DNV] [PudMed:19150849]
structure of HipA-amppnp-peptide [ PDB ID: 3FBR] [PudMed:19150849]
Structure of mdt protein [ PDB ID: 3HZI] [PudMed:19150849]
Mercury-Modified Bacterial Persistence Regulator HipBA [ PDB ID: 2WIU]
(1) Black DS et al. (1994) Autoregulation of hip, an operon that affects lethality due to inhibition ofpeptidoglycan or DNA synthesis. J Bacteriol 176(13):4081-91. [PudMed:8021189] experimental
(2) Moyed HS et al. (1983) hipA, a newly recognized gene of Escherichia coli K-12 that affects frequency of persistence after inhibition of murein synthesis J Bacteriol. 155(2):768-75.. [PudMed:6348026] experimental
(3) Rotem E et al. (2010) Regulation of phenotypic variability by a threshold-based mechanism underlies bacterial persistence Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107(28):12541-6. [PudMed:20616060] experimental
(4) Lewis K. (2010) Persister Cells. Annu Rev Microbiol 64:357-72. [PudMed:20528688]
(5) Fricke WF et al. (2009) Comparative genomics of the IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid family. J Bacteriol 191(15):4750-7. [PudMed:19482926]
(6) Jayaraman R. (2008) Bacterial persistence: some new insights into an old phenomenon. J Biosci 33(5):795-805. [PudMed:19179767]
(7) Schumacher MA et al. (2009) Molecular mechanisms of HipA-mediated multidrug tolerance and its neutralization by HipB Science. 323(5912):396-401. [PudMed:19150849] 3D_structure
(8) Black DS et al. (1991) Structure and organization of hip, an operon that affects lethality due toinhibition of peptidoglycan or DNA synthesis. J Bacteriol 173(18):5732-9. [PudMed:1715862] experimental
(9) Korch SB et al. (2006) Ectopic overexpression of wild-type and mutant hipA genes in Escherichia coli:effects on macromolecular synthesis and persister formation. J Bacteriol 188(11):3826-36. [PudMed:16707675] experimental
(10) Vazquez-Laslop N et al. (2006) Increased persistence in Escherichia coli caused by controlled expression oftoxins or other unrelated proteins. J Bacteriol 188(10):3494-7. [PudMed:16672603] experimental
(11) Keren I et al. (2004) Specialized persister cells and the mechanism of multidrug tolerance inEscherichia coli. J Bacteriol 186(24):8172-80. [PudMed:15576765] experimental
(12) Korch SB et al. (2003) Characterization of the hipA7 allele of Escherichia coli and evidence that highpersistence is governed by (p)ppGpp synthesis. Mol Microbiol 50(4):1199-213. [PudMed:14622409] experimental
(13) Lewis K. (2000) Programmed death in bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64(3):503-14. [PudMed:10974124]
(14) Falla TJ et al. (1999) Stabilization of Rhizobium symbiosis plasmids. Microbiology 145 ( Pt 3):515-6. [PudMed:10217483]
experimental experimental literature
3D_structure protein structure literature